Risk-Based Therapy in Treating Younger Patients With Newly Diagnosed Liver Cancer


Childhood Hepatoblastoma | Stage I Childhood Liver Cancer | Stage II Childhood Liver Cancer | Stage III Childhood Liver Cancer | Stage IV Childhood Liver Cancer

Trial Phase

Phase 3

Trial Purpose and Description

Trial Purpose

This phase III trial studies the side effects and how well risk-based therapy works in treating younger patients with newly diagnosed liver cancer. Surgery, chemotherapy drugs (cancer fighting medicines), and when necessary liver transplant are the main current treatments for hepatoblastoma. The stage of the cancer is one factor used to decide the best treatment. Treating patients according to the risk group they are in may help get rid of the cancer, keep it from coming back, and decrease the side effects of chemotherapy.

Trial Description



I. To estimate the event-free survival (EFS) in children with stage I (non-pure fetal
histology [PFH], non-small cell undifferentiated [SCU]) and stage II (non-SCU)
hepatoblastoma treated with surgical resection followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin,
fluorouracil, and vincristine sulfate (C5V).

II. To determine the feasibility and toxicity of adding doxorubicin hydrochloride to the
chemotherapy regimen of C5V for children with intermediate-risk hepatoblastoma.

III. To estimate the response rate to vincristine (vincristine sulfate), irinotecan
(irinotecan hydrochloride), and temsirolimus in previously untreated children with
high-risk, metastatic hepatoblastoma.

IV. To determine whether timely (between diagnosis and end of second cycle of chemotherapy)
consultation with a treatment center with surgical expertise in major pediatric liver
resection and transplant can be achieved in 70% of patients with potentially unresectable

V. To foster the collection of tumor tissue and biologic samples to facilitate translational
research and to provide data that may aid in risk-adapted approaches for subsequent clinical


I. To estimate the EFS of patients with stage I PFH treated with surgery alone. II. To
determine whether orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) can be accomplished after
successful referral and completion of 4 cycles of initial chemotherapy.

III. To estimate the 2-year EFS for patients once identified as candidates for possible OLT,
the 2-year EFS for patients referred to a transplant center that are resected without OLT,
and the 2-year EFS for patients referred to a transplant center who receive OLT.

IV. To register children with hepatoblastoma who receive OLT with PLUTO (Pediatric Liver
Unresectable Tumor Observatory), an international cooperative registry for children
transplanted for liver tumors.

V. To determine if PRETEXT grouping can predict tumor resectability. VI. To monitor the
concordance between institutional assessment of PRETEXT grouping and PRETEXT grouping as
performed by expert panel review.

VII. To estimate the proportion of stage IV patients who have surgical resection of
metastatic pulmonary lesions.

VIII. To determine the proportion and estimate the EFS of patients with potentially poor
prognostic factors including alpha fetoprotein (AFP) < 100 ng/mL at diagnosis, microscopic
positive surgical margins, surgical complications, multifocal tumors, microscopic vascular
invasion, macrotrabecular histologic subtype, and SCU histologic subtype.

OUTLINE: Patients are assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups according to risk group.

VERY LOW-RISK GROUP: Patients undergo surgery and receive no further treatment.

LOW-RISK GROUP: (regimen T) Patients undergo surgery and then receive adjuvant cisplatin
intravenously (IV) over 6 hours on day 1, fluorouracil IV on day 2, and vincristine sulfate
IV on days 2, 9, and 16. Treatment repeats every 21 days for 2 courses in the absence of
disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

INTERMEDIATE-RISK GROUP: (regimen F) Patients receive C5VD chemotherapy comprising cisplatin
IV over 6 hours on day 1, fluorouracil IV on day 2, vincristine sulfate IV on days 2, 9, and
16, and doxorubicin hydrochloride IV over 15 minutes on days 1-2. Treatment repeats every 21
days for 6 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients
also undergo surgical resection after course 2 OR surgical resection or liver
transplantation after course 4 of C5VD.

HIGH-RISK GROUP: (regimen H) Patients receive up front VIT chemotherapy comprising
vincristine sulfate IV on days 1 and 8 and irinotecan hydrochloride IV over 90 minutes on
days 1-5, and temsirolimus IV over 30 minutes on days 1 and 8. Treatment with VIT repeats
every 21 days for 2 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
Patients with disease response then receive 6 courses of C5VD with 4 courses of VIT in
between each 2-course block. Patients with no disease response receive 6 courses of C5VD in
the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients undergo tumor
resection or liver transplant after course 4 of C5VD followed by 2 courses of adjuvant C5VD.

After completion of study therapy, patients who receive chemotherapy are followed up
periodically for at least 4 years.

Participation Guidelines

N/A - 21 Years

Eligibility Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

- Patients must be newly diagnosed with histologically-proven hepatoblastoma

- In emergency situations when a patient meets all other eligibility criteria and has
had baseline required observations, but is too ill to undergo a biopsy safely, the
patient may be enrolled on AHEP0731 without a biopsy

- Clinical situations in which such emergent treatment may be indicated include,
but are not limited to, the following circumstances:

- Anatomic or mechanical compromise of critical organ function by tumor (eg,
respiratory distress/failure, abdominal compartment syndrome, urinary
obstruction, etc)

- Uncorrectable coagulopathy

- For a patient to maintain eligibility for AHEP0731 when emergent treatment is
given, the following must occur:

- The patient must have a clinical diagnosis of hepatoblastoma, including an
elevated alpha fetoprotein, and must meet all AHEP0731 eligibility criteria
at the time of emergent treatment

- Patient must be enrolled on AHEP0731 prior to initiating protocol therapy;
a patient will be ineligible if any chemotherapy is administered prior to
AHEP0731 enrollment

- If the patient receives AHEP0731 chemotherapy PRIOR to undergoing a
diagnostic biopsy, pathologic review of material obtained in the future
during either biopsy or surgical resection must either confirm the
diagnosis of hepatoblastoma or not reveal another pathological diagnosis to
be included in the analysis of the study aims

- Patients will be staged for risk classification and treatment at diagnosis using
Children's Oncology Group (COG) staging guidelines

- At the time of study enrollment, the patient's treatment regimen must be identified;
if the patient's primary tumor was resected prior to the day of enrollment and a
blood specimen for the determination of serum alpha fetoprotein was not obtained
prior to that surgery, the patient will be considered to have alpha fetoprotein of
greater than 100 ng/mL for the purpose of treatment assignment; if tumor samples
obtained prior to the date of enrollment were not sufficient to determine whether
small cell undifferentiated (SCU) histology was present, treatment assignment will be
made assuming SCU is not present in the tumor

- For patients with stage I or II disease, specimens for rapid central review have been
submitted and the rapid central review diagnosis and staging must be available to be
provided on the AHEP0731 eligibility case report form (CRF)

- Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0, 1, or 2; use
Karnofsky for patients > 16 years of age and Lansky for patients =< 16 years of age

- Patients may have had surgical resection of some or all sites of hepatoblastoma prior
to enrollment

- Organ function requirements are not required for enrolled patients who are stage I,
PFH and will not be receiving chemotherapy

- Creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >= 70
mL/min/1.73 m^2 OR serum creatinine based on age/gender as follows:

- 1 month to < 6 months: 0.4 mg/dL

- 6 months to < 1 year: 0.5 mg/dL

- 1 to < 2 years: 0.6 mg/dL

- 2 to < 6 years: 0.8 mg/dL

- 6 to < 10 years: 1 mg/dL

- 10 to < 13 years: 1.2 mg/dL

- 13 to < 16 years: 1.5 mg/dL (male) or 1.4 mg/dL (female)

- >= 16 years: 1.7 mg/dL (male) 1.4 mg/dL (female)

- Total bilirubin < 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) for age

- Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) or
serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) (alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) < 10 x
ULN for age

- Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) > 750/uL

- Platelet count > 75,000/uL

- Shortening fraction >= 27% by echocardiogram

- Ejection fraction >= 47% by radionuclide angiogram (multi gated acquisition scan
[MUGA]); Note: the echocardiogram (or MUGA) may be done within 28 days prior to

- Serum triglyceride level =< 300 mg/dL (=< 3.42 mmol/L)

- Serum cholesterol level =< 300 mg/dL (7.75 mmol/L)

- Random or fasting blood glucose within the upper normal limits for age; if the
initial blood glucose is a random sample that is outside of the normal limits, then a
follow-up fasting blood glucose can be obtained and must be within the upper normal
limits for age

- Normal pulmonary function tests (including diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon
monoxide [DLCO]) if there is clinical indication for determination (e.g. dyspnea at
rest, known requirement for supplemental oxygen); Note: for patients who do not have
respiratory symptoms or requirement for supplemental oxygen, pulmonary function tests
(PFTs) are NOT required

- Patients with seizure disorder may be enrolled if on non-enzyme inducing
anticonvulsants and if seizures are well controlled

- Prothrombin time (PT) < 1.2 x ULN

- All patients and/or their parents or legal guardians must sign a written informed

- All institutional, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and National Cancer Institute
(NCI) requirements for human studies must be met

Exclusion Criteria:

- Patients with stage I or II disease who do not have specimens submitted for rapid
central pathology review by day 14 after initial surgical resection

- Patients that have been previously treated with chemotherapy for hepatoblastoma or
other hepatoblastoma-directed therapy (eg, radiation therapy, biologic agents, local
therapy [embolization, radiofrequency ablation, laser]) are not eligible

- Patients who have received any prior chemotherapy are not eligible

- Patients who are currently receiving another investigational drug are not eligible

- Patients who are currently receiving other anticancer agents are not eligible

- Patients who have previously received a solid organ transplant are not eligible

- Patients who have an uncontrolled infection are not eligible

- Females who are pregnant or breast feeding are not eligible for this study

- Female patients of childbearing potential are not eligible unless a negative
pregnancy text result has been obtained

- Males and females of reproductive potential are not eligible unless they have agreed
to use an effective contraceptive method

- Patients receiving corticosteroids are not eligible; patients must have been off
corticosteroids for 7 days prior to start of chemotherapy

- Patients who are currently receiving enzyme inducing anticonvulsants are not eligible

- Patients must not be receiving any of the following potent cytochrome P450, family 3,
subfamily A, polypeptide 4 (CYP3A4) inducers or inhibitors: erythromycin,
clarithromycin, azithromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole,
grapefruit juice or St. John's wort

- Patients who are currently receiving therapeutic anticoagulants (including aspirin,
low molecular weight heparin, warfarin and others) are not eligible

- Patients who are currently receiving angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE) inhibitors
are not eligible

- Patients must not have had major surgery within 6 weeks prior to enrollment on the
high risk stratum; patients with history of recent minor surgical procedures
(vascular catheter placement, bone marrow evaluation, laparoscopic surgery, liver
tumor biopsy) will be eligible
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
September 2009
Last Updated:
October 23, 2014
Study HIC#:

Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT00980460